Boost Your Child’s Vision

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Vision problems often run in families, but there are some factors that you can control in your child’s environment to help their eyesight. Try these tips to give your child’s vision a better chance.

Brighten things up.
Unfortunately, your mom was right: reading in dim light can wreak havoc on your eyes. Buy your child a good reading light, or make sure that homework is done in plenty of natural light.

Give them space.
Place a pillow about eight feet away from the TV, and tell your child they have to watch it from that distance. Sitting too close to a television leads to the same focus problems that your child can develop from using computers and video games.

Take breaks.
Experts agree that kids’ increased computer use can cause focus problems, particularly the ability to refocus on objects far away. Take note of how much time they spend in front of the computer, and make sure they take a ten-minute break every hour.

Buy shades.
Your child may not need glasses, but it’s a good idea to buy them sunglasses. UV exposure can lead to macular degeneration or the early development of cataracts.

Don’t skip eye exams.
Children should be screened by an eye doctor or pediatrician between 6 and 12 months, 3 and 3 ½ years, at 5, and then annually after that.

It’s not too late for adults to start practicing these techniques, also. Make them a family habit, and you could slow the loss of your vision as you age. It’s important to set a good example for your children, too.

Family – The Basic Social Unit

Family is the basic social unit. Family represents people living together by ties of marriage, blood or adaptation, thus representing a single household. According to sociology, the family has the primary function of reproducing society; biologically, socially, or both. There are various structures of a family based on the relationship shared between the parent and the children. The different types of family are patrifocal, where the family consists of a father and his child; matrifocal, where the family consists of a mother and her child. Consanguineal family is one which consists of the mother, the child and other people, mainly belonging to the family of the mother. The conjugal family consists of one or more mothers and their children, with other people and one or more spouses.

The parent-child relationship varies due to different cultures. One of the prominent forms is the nuclear family. It consists of the marital pair living with their offspring separately. The joint family is an extension of the nuclear family. Joint family occurs when children of one sex live at their parents’ house. In a joint family, the children bring along their spouse to live with them at their parents’ house after marriage. A joint family usually consists of an older man and his wife, his sons and unmarried daughters, his sons’ wives and children. Members of a joint family share all the task of trade, food gathering and preparation and child rearing.

Children who share one parent but not another are called “half–brothers” or “half–sisters”. Children who do not share parents, but whose parents are married, are called “step-brothers” or “step-sisters”. Similarly, if a person is married to the parent of a child, but is not the parent of the child themselves; they are called “stepfather” or “stepmother”.

A complex family involves more than two adults. It refers to any extended family or to polygamy of any type. A joint family is also known as a complex family. The parents and their children in a joint family live together under a single roof. In a joint family setup, the womenfolk are often housewives and cook for the entire family. The patriarch of the family is usually the oldest male member, who lays down the rules of the family. This kind of setup is fast eroding in many parts of the world. Almost all the urban families are switching over to the nuclear family society.

4 Parenting Styles

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Every grandmother and grandfather will tell you hilarious stories of their children when they were first born. And for every funny and touching story they have, they will be able to tell you another for every hardship they encountered. Parenting is something that is done in many different ways by each parent. The following are four general styles employed by parents.

Authority: Authoritarian parents rule on just that: authority. Commands are given to children that they must follow regardless of the circumstances. If these commands are not followed, harsh punishment will ensue. These parents do not welcome feedback from their children. In fact, it is met with severe punishment. The children tend to be quiet and unhappy. They have more of a fear than a love for their parents. Male children have trouble dealing with anger and female children have trouble facing adversity due to their heavily structured life where nothing ever changes.

Indulgent: Indulgent parents tend to be described as lenient. They allow immature and childish behavior. These parents expect the children to learn from their mistakes and to fend for themselves in most times of need. These parents tend to be democratic and allow for feedback from there children on issues. They will hear both sides of an argument and usually make a compromise. Indulgent parents usually avoid confrontation with their children by all means, but do tend to be more involved and emotionally closer to their children.

Authoritative: Authoritative parents are a combination of the two styles previously mentioned. They are the happy medium. While expecting proper behavior from their children, they welcome feedback and questioning on certain issues. They’re able to demand things of their children but are also able to respond to what they’re child says, questions and requests. These children tend to be the happiest, most confident and self assured of all the mentioned parenting styles. It is very difficult to be a purely authoritative parent.

Passive: Passive parenting is being completely uninvolved. These parents may never be home due to immaturity, work or the like. These children are usually raised by grandparents, older siblings, babysitters or themselves. There is no parental involvement at all.